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Civilians Under Fire

Portrait de Marc Le Pape
Le Pape

Marc Le Pape has been a researcher at the CNRS and then at the EHESS. He is currently a member of the scientific committee of the CRASH. Formerly with the CNRS, Marc Le Pape is currently a researcher at the l'Ehess (Centre d'études africaines). He has carried out research in Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire and Central Africa. His recent studies have focused on the Great Lakes region in Africa. He has co-directed several publications: Côte d'Ivoire, l'année terrible 1999-2000 (2003), Crises extrêmes (2006) et dans le cadre de MSF : Une guerre contre les civils. Réflexions sur les pratiques humanitaires au Congo-Brazzaville, 1998-2000 (2001) and Génocide et crimes de masse. L'expérience rwandaise de MSF 1982-1997 (2016). 


Healthcare Project Manager at agence française de développement (AFD), former Executive Director of the French section of Médecins Sans Frontières

Executive Director of Médecins du Monde (MDM) from 2009 to 2013, he worked with the Workd Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva in 2008 and 2009. He joined MSF in 1992 and worked until 2007 as a Coordinator in the field, and as a Program Manager and Executive Director at MSF headquarter in Paris.

In the face of violence, how does a medical relief organization react and respond? 

This book is an account of one experience; it describes and analyzes the characteristics of one intervention: that of Médecins Sans Frontières in Congo Brazzaville in 1998-2000. Cruelties and humiliations against civilians were massive: expulsions, forced displacements, lootings, brutalities, killings, summary executions, rapes. How can we, in these conditions, improve emergency aid operations and their distribution, how can we avoid that they be refused to some, due to humanitarian routines, misunderstandings and emotional engagement? 

Various humanitarian actors, witnesses and observers highlight the day-to-day of this humanitarian mission and the consequences of the war. Their stories and investigations are associated with a reflection on emergency relief and especially on the choices that undermine or improve its quality. 

You can download the EPUB and the PDF version of this book or buy it online.

To cite this content :
Marc Le Pape, Pierre Salignon, Civilians Under Fire, 1 octobre 2001, URL :

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