sexual violence https://msf-crash.org/en en Collecting data on sexual violence: what do we need to know? The case of MSF in the Democratic Republic of Congo https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/collecting-data-sexual-violence-what-do-we-need-know-case <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2014-02-20T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">20/02/2014</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">babayaga</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 02/20/2014 - 02:00</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/gender" hreflang="en">gender</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/gender-based-violence-information-management-system" hreflang="en">Gender-Based Violence Information Management System</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/sexual-violence" hreflang="en">sexual violence</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Claire Magone</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3258" role="article" about="/index.php/en/claire-magone" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Claire</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Magone</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Head of Communications, Médecins Sans Frontières - Operational Centre Paris (OCP)</p> <p>After studying communication (CELSA) and political sciences (La Sorbonne), Claire Magone worked for various NGOs, particularly in Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Nigeria). In 2010, she joined MSF-Crash as a Director of Studies. Since 2014, she has been working as a Head of Communications.</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/index.php/en/claire-magone" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Claire Magone has just published a paper, in <a href="http://www.odihpn.org/humanitarian-exchange-magazine/issue-60/collecting-data-on-sexual-violence-what-do-we-need-to-know-the-case-of-msf-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo" target="_blank">Humanitarian Exchange Magazine</a> (issue 60, February 2014 ) focusing on gender-based violence (GBV) in humanitarian crises. In an article called "Collecting data on sexual violence: what do we need to know? The case of MSF in the Democratic Republic of Congo", she cautions against an over-emphasis on collecting prevalence data over addressing victims' needs.</p> <p><a href="http://odihpn.org/magazine/collecting-data-on-sexual-violence-what-do-we-need-to-know-the-case-of-msf-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo/" target="_blank"><strong>Download Humanitarian Exchange Magazine #60</strong></a></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3785&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="V3KtGH1WZd_4zCuqW0omQBLm4HywnUu_b81TyjRfemM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3785&amp;2=reading_list" token="zOR7LHbIbcdmUlVkm1Mc683y3HWqFgEYhUKgqifYFfs"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Claire Magone, Collecting data on sexual violence: what do we need to know? The case of MSF in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 20 February 2014, URL : <a href="https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/collecting-data-sexual-violence-what-do-we-need-know-case">https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/humanitarian-actors-and-practices/collecting-data-sexual-violence-what-do-we-need-know-case</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3785" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Collecting data on sexual violence: what do we need to know? The case of MSF in the Democratic Republic of Congo</span> Thu, 20 Feb 2014 01:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3785 at https://msf-crash.org Suite à «Viols en temps de guerre : les hommes aussi» https://msf-crash.org/fr/publications/medecine-et-sante-publique/suite-viols-en-temps-de-guerre-les-hommes-aussi <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2012-01-27T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">27/01/2012</time> </div> </div> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/63" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Kesaven-02</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2017-04-16T17:40:45+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 04/16/2017 - 19:40</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/sexual-violence" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">sexual violence</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/gender" property="schema:about" hreflang="en">gender</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Marc Le Pape</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3249" role="article" about="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-10/photo%20MLP.jpg?itok=IEcezKXq" width="180" height="230" alt="Portrait de Marc Le Pape" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Marc</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Le Pape</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Marc Le Pape has been a researcher at the CNRS&nbsp;and then at the EHESS. He is currently a member of the scientific committee of the CRASH.&nbsp;Formerly with the CNRS, Marc Le Pape is currently a researcher at the l'Ehess (Centre d'études africaines). He has carried out research in Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire and Central Africa. His recent studies have focused on the Great Lakes region in Africa. He has co-directed several publications: <em>Côte d'Ivoire, l'année terrible 1999-2000</em> (2003), <em>Crises extrêmes</em> (2006) et dans le cadre de MSF : <em>Une guerre contre les civils. Réflexions sur les pratiques humanitaires au Congo-Brazzaville, 1998-2000</em> (2001) and&nbsp;<em>Génocide et crimes de masse. L'expérience rwandaise de MSF 1982-1997</em> (2016).&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In "Wartime rapes: men, too", I discussed an article, "The rape of men", by Will Storr published in <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men" target="_blank">The Observer</a> on 17 July 2011. The newspaper summarises the article as follows:</p> <p>"In this harrowing report, Will Storr travels to Uganda to meet traumatised survivors, and reveals how male rape is endemic in many of the world’s conflicts". The article features the story of a young Congolese man who was raped in Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo) by an armed group of 12 men. He managed to flee and found refuge in Kampala, Uganda, where he received medical treatment from the Refugee Law Project (Makerere University), whose director is a British doctor, Chris Dolan. During an interview with the reporter, Dolan questioned the restrictive way many organisations use the concept of gender, believing that only women can be victims of sexual violence. Storr clearly supports this critique.</p> <p>In reaction to this article, 209 messages were published by The Observer from 17 to19 July 2011. I'm not sorry that I read all of them; they raise many questions about the treatment of sexual violence suffered by men during wartime. Are they recognised or ignored by organisations and institutions involved in helping the victims of armed conflict? When their restrictive use of the gender concept is criticized, is that a sign of misogyny and hostility to feminism (i.e. hostility to certain feminist ways of thinking: the "old feminist view")? How can we explain the stigmatization of victims, silence about their fate in society and resistance to treating them? How can we explain the decision to rape men? Is it a matter of "homosexual rape" and "latent homosexuality"? Or should such violence be attributed to the armed conflict situation and considered exclusively as an act of power, a desire to humiliate, terrorise, dominate and make others suffer ("rape is about power")?</p> <p>How can we provide aid, especially medical care, to these men? Should it be separate and different from the assistance provided to women? I will summarise as faithfully as possibly the main issues expressed by the commenters. My initial goal in this article is not to call certain arguments or interpretations of the rapists' behaviours right or wrong but to show how these discussions and exchange of views address gender norms and rules. I also aim to identify the practical effects of major norms and rules on the provision of aid to victims. For that reason, I must first present the comments themselves, noting the various issues that come up most frequently in the discussion.</p> <h2><br /> MIND OF THE RAPIST</h2> <p>A number of the commenters try to understand the rapists' behaviour and explain their motivations, without in any way excusing what they did. Two different perspectives hold sway throughout the 209 messages. One asserts that the decisive factor is the desire for sex and pleasure, while the second sees the motivation as a desire to terrorise, humiliate and hurt in a situation of armed violence, as in the eastern region of the DRC, that has nothing to do with "desire" or "sexuality". These two camps hold firmly to their hardcore and irreconcilable positions.</p> <p>Added to this debate is a discussion on the hypothetical link between male rapes and the perpetrators' "latent homosexuality". In response to this viewpoint, several people retort that in an environment where homophobia and heterosexual norms prevail, it is absurd to attribute rape during an armed conflict to homosexuality. Firstly, this argument reduces homosexuality to a single act (violent in this case) and secondly, it ignores the dominance and pressure of "machismo", which we must "put an end to" ("Let's do whatever is necessary to stop the rape culture and put an end to machismo"). My aim here is not to support one of these viewpoints. It should be noted, however, that the "latent homosexuality" idea takes a very dangerous interpretive approach: instead of referring to the chain of events that lead to rapes (as do those who characterise it as an 3 MARC LE PAPE act of terror), it starts with observable behaviours and infers a state of mind and motivations supposedly causing these actions. Without research into the actual rape situations, there is reason to doubt this claim to grasp rapists' motivations from so far away.</p> <h2><br /> FEMINISM CHALLENGED, RESISTANCE TO TREATMENT</h2> <p>A number of comments endorse the article's reported criticisms against United Nations agencies and international NGOs: these comments criticize the opinions that identify gender relations with male dominance over women and thereby conclude that only women can be victims while men are exclusively perpetrators of violence. This is the argument that Dr Dolan and lawyer Lara Stemple use against relief organisations operating in conflict situations to explain why they do not recognise sexual violence against men and have no plans to help them. One post recalls that certain radical feminists in the 1980s called men "a class of oppressors", a perspective that results in reserving victim status for women and perpetrator status for men.</p> <p>Other messages, however, object to placing the blame on feminists – the people who led the way to the public condemnation of sexual violence, who fought the taboo that prevented any action from being taken. And if people are speaking out now about male rape during wartime, it is only because feminists laid the foundation. One comment (michaelamherst) re-examines the position adopted by most aid organisations' position on gender politics: what is objectionable is not feminism in general but the binary concept of gender. This concept states that the act of rape is "a purely male behaviour", and that men are characterised by "aggressive sexuality" while "being a victim is viewed as a sign of femininity and weakness". It is thus the binary concepts of gender that should be eliminated.</p> <p>Several people note that victims of sexual violence in conflict zones are overwhelmingly women; none of the posts contradict this fact yet many say they are surprised by the large percentage of male victims in the conflict zones of the eastern DRC.</p> <h2><br /> GENDER AND VICTIM ASSISTANCE</h2> <p>All of the messages condemn the sexual violence against men and the problems they are having in the United Kingdom and Ireland gaining access to services equal in quality to the assistance provided to women. One point of disagreement is the organisation of victim assistance centres. According to some commenters, the centres serving women should not accept men and should create separate facilities reserved for them. The major argument in support of this position is that mixing the sexes would only exacerbate the women's trauma. Victim assistance services should maintain separate facilities for women so that female patients feel safe from any danger and are not traumatised by the presence of men. One message, which supports the creation of separate services, adds that aid organisations must take into account that we live in a world where gender differences have social repercussions. As a result, it is their responsibility to create different protocols and healthcare facilities.</p> <p>One argument dominates amongst those who oppose separate aid facilities: such a separation perpetuates and legitimises women's feeling of fear, and even panic, toward all men, which only strengthens their vulnerability. On the other hand, creating mixed facilities, where the quality of services would be identical for everyone, would show women that they are not the only victims and that they share this fate with certain men. Some of the commenters note that the vast majority of the male rape victims are also victims of men (Abu Ghraib is cited as an example to emphasise that women can sometimes be perpetrators and men victims of sexual violence).</p> <p>f men, like women, are overwhelmingly the victims of men, then separating the sexes is not justified, particularly because shared access to the same quality of care would demonstrate that violence is not a character trait specific to the male gender and that the status of sexual victim is common to both men and women. Of primary importance is the quality of the therapeutic relationship between caregiver and patient. Will Storr's article is a piece of socially committed journalism. He speaks out against "the conspiracy of silence" toward sexual violence against men evident in a "number of developing countries". Storr bases this commitment on a patient's personal account, the research of university professor Lara Stemple and accounts by two people working for the Refugee Law Project in Kampala, Dr Dolan and the health centre's gender officer. Challenging a binary perspective of gender is one of the main themes in Storr's critique. A number of commenters also address this issue. They frequently criticize a "macho culture" that uses a strictly binary means of assigning gender identity, with the effect of stigmatising male rape victims and denying them the level of support provided to women. This article and the 209 comments have the great merit of challenging the influence of gender concepts and standards on care providers in the United Kingdom but also on humanitarian workers in general.</p> </div> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Marc Le Pape, Follow-up to &quot;Wartime rape: men, too&quot; , 27 January 2012, URL : <a href="https://msf-crash.org/en/publications/medicine-and-public-health/follow-wartime-rape-men-too">https://msf-crash.org/en/publications/medicine-and-public-health/follow-wartime-rape-men-too</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3973" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3973&amp;2=reading_list" token="7crUD868vZBHeyhKBg3e8hJk7k2TDxupfrGXyxvKcPE"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Follow-up to &quot;Wartime rape: men, too&quot; </span> Fri, 27 Jan 2012 01:00:00 +0000 Kesaven-02 3973 at https://msf-crash.org Suite à "Viols en temps de guerre : les hommes aussi" https://msf-crash.org/fr/blog/medecine-et-sante-publique/suite-viols-en-temps-de-guerre-les-hommes-aussi <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2012-01-23T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">23/01/2012</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 01/27/2012 - 13:34</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/sexual-violence" hreflang="en">sexual violence</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/gender" hreflang="en">gender</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Marc Le Pape</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3249" role="article" about="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-10/photo%20MLP.jpg?itok=IEcezKXq" width="180" height="230" alt="Portrait de Marc Le Pape" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Marc</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Le Pape</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Marc Le Pape has been a researcher at the CNRS&nbsp;and then at the EHESS. He is currently a member of the scientific committee of the CRASH.&nbsp;Formerly with the CNRS, Marc Le Pape is currently a researcher at the l'Ehess (Centre d'études africaines). He has carried out research in Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire and Central Africa. His recent studies have focused on the Great Lakes region in Africa. He has co-directed several publications: <em>Côte d'Ivoire, l'année terrible 1999-2000</em> (2003), <em>Crises extrêmes</em> (2006) et dans le cadre de MSF : <em>Une guerre contre les civils. Réflexions sur les pratiques humanitaires au Congo-Brazzaville, 1998-2000</em> (2001) and&nbsp;<em>Génocide et crimes de masse. L'expérience rwandaise de MSF 1982-1997</em> (2016).&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In "Wartime rapes: men, too", I discussed an article, "<a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men">The rape of men</a>", by Will Storr published in The Observer on 17 July 2011.</p> <p>The newspaper summarises the article as follows: "In this harrowing report, Will Storr travels to Uganda to meet traumatised survivors, and reveals how male rape is endemic in many of the world's conflicts". The article features the story of a young Congolese man who was raped in Kivu (Democratic Republic of Congo) by an armed group of 12 men. He managed to flee and found refuge in Kampala, Uganda, where he received medical treatment from the Refugee Law Project (Makerere University), whose director is a British doctor, Chris Dolan. During an interview with the reporter, Dolan questioned the restrictive way many organisations use the concept of gender, believing that only women can be victims of sexual violence. Storr clearly supports this critique...</p> <p><a href="http://www.msf-crash.org/en/publications/?section=4" target="_blank"><strong>READ "WARTIME RAPES: MEN, TOO"</strong></a></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3679&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="F7u77KESQR1qY3ybISVw-jVU9XGJ4jPE8amC0xGQFd4"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3679&amp;2=reading_list" token="LE0fmqhd4yWcZzOUJheOUc3TyvF4-t9dWRQyD7nNxcg"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Marc Le Pape, Follow-up to &quot;Wartime rapes: men, too&quot;, 23 January 2012, URL : <a href="https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/follow-wartime-rapes-men-too">https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/follow-wartime-rapes-men-too</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3679" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Follow-up to &quot;Wartime rapes: men, too&quot;</span> Mon, 23 Jan 2012 01:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3679 at https://msf-crash.org Viols en temps de guerre : les hommes aussi https://msf-crash.org/fr/blog/medecine-et-sante-publique/viols-en-temps-de-guerre-les-hommes-aussi <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-inline clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Date de publication</div> <div class="field__item"><time datetime="2011-12-05T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">05/12/2011</time> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 12/05/2011 - 16:14</span> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/sexual-violence" hreflang="en">sexual violence</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/gender" hreflang="en">gender</a></div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Marc Le Pape</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3249" role="article" about="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-10/photo%20MLP.jpg?itok=IEcezKXq" width="180" height="230" alt="Portrait de Marc Le Pape" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Marc</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Le Pape</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Marc Le Pape has been a researcher at the CNRS&nbsp;and then at the EHESS. He is currently a member of the scientific committee of the CRASH.&nbsp;Formerly with the CNRS, Marc Le Pape is currently a researcher at the l'Ehess (Centre d'études africaines). He has carried out research in Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire and Central Africa. His recent studies have focused on the Great Lakes region in Africa. He has co-directed several publications: <em>Côte d'Ivoire, l'année terrible 1999-2000</em> (2003), <em>Crises extrêmes</em> (2006) et dans le cadre de MSF : <em>Une guerre contre les civils. Réflexions sur les pratiques humanitaires au Congo-Brazzaville, 1998-2000</em> (2001) and&nbsp;<em>Génocide et crimes de masse. L'expérience rwandaise de MSF 1982-1997</em> (2016).&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Since the beginning of the 2000s, a number of English-language researchers have regularly asked the following question: why do international aid organisations (United Nations agencies and NGOs) pay so little attention to rapes of men and boys committed during armed conflicts?<br /> In fact, the lack of interest is not as systematic as these researchers state. Such wartime rapes have been reported by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. In addition, the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs held a discussion on the issue in June 2008, where the situation was reviewed and recommendations made to researchers, particularly the following: find a research perspective that avoids reducing men to the status of rapists.<br /> Since the Yugoslav wars, all relief agencies have been primarily focusing on rapes of women and girls. This has become an essential commitment in all of these organisations' programmes, especially those working in the Kivu provinces and Ituri district of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Compared to this major commitment, there appears to be extremely low interest in male rape, with very few programmes providing specific assistance. Only these programmes, however, generate public interest, beginning with media coverage.</p> <h3><br /> <strong>Shame and « taboo »</strong></h3> <p>That was the chain of events in August 2009 when the New York Times published <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/05/world/africa/05congo.html" target="_blank">a story about Congo</a> highlighting a steep rise in the number of rapes of men during a worsening military conflict, as reported by international organisations, victims, medical staff and the reporter Jeffrey Gettleman. Gettleman stressed that in a region where homosexuality is « taboo », such rapes "carry an extra dose of shame" for victims.</p> <p>Then, in July 2011, The Observer published a long article entitled "<a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men" target="_blank">The rape of men</a>"&nbsp; based on a visit to a refugee aid agency in Kampala, Uganda. Among the refugees were victims raped during armed conflict in Congo. Storr noted that he found victims willing to tell their stories due to the British doctor directing the agency. He discussed <a href="http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/304/5/553.full" target="_blank">the only epidemiological survey</a> of sexual violence against men, which estimated its prevalence: 22% of men reported conflict-related sexual violence in Eastern DRC (Ituri, South and North Kivu) between 1994 and 2010 - with 4.4% reporting that they had been victims of rape.<br /> The doctor directing the aid agency said that the NGOs working on gender-based violence remain systematically silent about violence against men or, in exceptional cases, they might mention it briefly at the end of a report. This critical viewpoint is shared by all male and female authors, who have been seeking recognition of wartime sexual abuse against men. Gender perceptions have had the effect of focusing attention on female victims and restricting the definition of rape to women, thereby ignoring "the fact that men can be weak and vulnerable".<br /> Following the article published in The Observer, the United Nations' IRIN information network published two articles highlighting institutions' lack of knowledge about sexual brutality against men, particularly in HCR programmes (IRIN, 2 August 2011). Thus the term "gender-related violence" in conflict zones has become interchangeable with violence against women (IRIN, 13 October 2011).</p> <h3><br /> An approach focused on violence against women</h3> <p>Lastly, in November 2011, <a href="http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/central/Rape-in-Congo-Devastates-Male-Victims-134117048.html" target="_blank">Voice of America (VOA) published a story</a> about the exceptional case of a Congolese rape victim lodging a complaint against a lieutenant in the army, who was sentenced to 14 years in prison.<br /> The repeated inquiries by doctors and researchers, especially lawyers, may be starting to have practical, even modest effects: at least that is what the articles about Uganda and the DRC are trying to show. It is true that since the beginning of the 2000s there have been several consistent arguments in the critiques of the prevailing consensus. In reviewing the research of Augusta DelZotto (2002), Sandesh Sivakumaran (2007), Lara Stemple (2009), Dustin A. Lewis (2009) and Maria Eriksson Baaz (2010), it is clear that their analyses converge on several points. They all underline the influence of the gender approach. This influence has led international relief agencies and the United Nations to give priority to an approach focused on violence against women, thereby legitimising a hierarchy of sexual victims, with men located at the bottom of this hierarchy. Everyone recognises the influence of the most current standards of masculinity hovering in the background of this hierarchy, leading to acceptance of the stereotype that says a "true" man would resist and thus make rape impossible. These attitudes also make it rare for men to see themselves as victims out of fear of being viewed as a "feminised man".<br /> Lara Stemple, however, underlines the emergence of new legal perspectives. The statute of the International Criminal Court provides a gender-neutral definition of sexual abuse that applies to both women and men, therefore refusing to permanently assign the role of rapist to the male side and victim to the female side. Yet an obstacle remains in terms of male rape. Dr Dolan, who works in Kampala, stresses how common it is - "it's systematically silenced" - while a Congolese man was told, "We have a programme for vulnerable women, but not men".</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>Other references</h3> <p>Augusta DelZotto, Adam Jones (2002), "<a href="http://adamjones.freeservers.com/malerape.htm" target="_blank">Male-on-Male Sexual Violence in Wartime: Human Rights' Last Taboo</a>", International Studies Association.<br /> <br /> Sandesh Sivakumaran (2007), "<a href="http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/2.toc" target="_blank">Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict</a>", The European Journal of International Law, vol. 18 (2).<br /> <br /> Lara Stemple (2009), "<a href="www.uchastings.edu/hlj/archive/vol60/vol60-3.html" target="_blank">Male Rape and Human Rights</a>", Hastings Law Journal, vol. 60, p. 605-646.<br /> <br /> Dustin A. Lewis (2009), "<a href="http://hosted.law.wisc.edu/wilj/issues/27/27.html" target="_blank">Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict Settings under International Law</a>", Wisconsin International Law Journal, vol. 27 (1).<br /> <br /> Maria Eriksson Baaz, Maria Stern (2010), <a href="http://nai.diva-portal.org/smash/searchlist.jsf?searchtype=simple&amp;author=Maria" target="_blank">The Complexity of Violence</a>, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden.<br /> &nbsp;</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3674&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="TP9FxmmJrIfObI_vPfkdJ2xcsSKWsiTk7NDyLtrhFHI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3674&amp;2=reading_list" token="TSkTTKTABzrI0a9jzzgiYHVGBTe61sQOK4WyAXLF1XU"></drupal-render-placeholder><div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Marc Le Pape, Wartime rapes: men, too, 5 December 2011, URL : <a href="https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/wartime-rapes-men-too">https://msf-crash.org/en/blog/medicine-and-public-health/wartime-rapes-men-too</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3674" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Wartime rapes: men, too</span> Mon, 05 Dec 2011 01:00:00 +0000 babayaga 3674 at https://msf-crash.org Une guerre contre les civils https://msf-crash.org/fr/publications/guerre-et-humanitaire/une-guerre-contre-les-civils <div class="field field--name-field-publish-date field--type-datetime field--label-hidden field__item"><time datetime="2001-10-01T12:00:00Z" class="datetime">01/10/2001</time> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/65" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Jason-04</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 10/01/2002 - 02:00</span> <div class="citation-container"> <div class="field--name-field-citation"> <p> <span>To cite this content :</span> <br> Marc Le Pape, Pierre Salignon, Civilians Under Fire, 1 October 2001, URL : <a href="https://msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/civilians-under-fire">https://msf-crash.org/en/publications/war-and-humanitarianism/civilians-under-fire</a> </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/sexual-violence" hreflang="en">sexual violence</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/population-displacements" hreflang="en">population displacements</a></div> </div> <div class="contribution-container"> <div class="field--name-field-contribution"> <p> <span>If you want to criticize or develop this content,</span> you can find us on twitter or directly on our site. </p> <a href="/en/contribute?to=3540" class="button">Contribute</a> </div> </div> <details class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper"> <summary role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-pressed="false">Marc Le Pape &amp; Pierre Salignon</summary><div class="details-wrapper"> <div class="field--type-entity-person js-form-wrapper form-wrapper field field--name-field-authors field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3249" role="article" about="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/profile_image/public/2017-10/photo%20MLP.jpg?itok=IEcezKXq" width="180" height="230" alt="Portrait de Marc Le Pape" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-profile-image" /> </div> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Marc</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Le Pape</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Marc Le Pape has been a researcher at the CNRS&nbsp;and then at the EHESS. He is currently a member of the scientific committee of the CRASH.&nbsp;Formerly with the CNRS, Marc Le Pape is currently a researcher at the l'Ehess (Centre d'études africaines). He has carried out research in Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire and Central Africa. His recent studies have focused on the Great Lakes region in Africa. He has co-directed several publications: <em>Côte d'Ivoire, l'année terrible 1999-2000</em> (2003), <em>Crises extrêmes</em> (2006) et dans le cadre de MSF : <em>Une guerre contre les civils. Réflexions sur les pratiques humanitaires au Congo-Brazzaville, 1998-2000</em> (2001) and&nbsp;<em>Génocide et crimes de masse. L'expérience rwandaise de MSF 1982-1997</em> (2016).&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/index.php/en/marc-le-pape" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <div class="field__item"> <article data-history-node-id="3250" role="article" about="/en/pierre-salignon" class="node node--type-person node--view-mode-embed"> <div class="node__content"> <div class="group-person-profil"> <div class="group-person-image-profil"> </div> <div class="group-person-content"> <div class="group-person-firstname-lastname"> <div class="field field--name-field-firstname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Pierre</div> <div class="field field--name-field-lastname field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Salignon</div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Healthcare Project Manager at agence française de développement (AFD), former Executive Director of the French section of Médecins Sans Frontières</p> <p>Executive Director of Médecins du Monde (MDM) from 2009 to 2013, he worked with the Workd Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva in 2008 and 2009. He joined MSF in 1992 and worked until 2007 as a Coordinator in the field, and as a Program Manager and Executive Director at MSF headquarter in Paris.</p> </div> <div class="same-author-link"><a href="/en/pierre-salignon" class="button">By the same author</a> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> </div> </div> </details> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In the face of violence, how does a medical relief organization react and respond?&nbsp;</p> <p>This book is an account of one experience; it describes and analyzes the characteristics of one intervention: that of Médecins Sans Frontières in Congo Brazzaville in 1998-2000.&nbsp;Cruelties and humiliations against civilians were massive: expulsions, forced displacements, lootings, brutalities, killings, summary executions, rapes. How can we, in these conditions, improve emergency aid operations and their distribution, how can we avoid that they be refused to some, due to humanitarian routines, misunderstandings and emotional engagement?&nbsp;</p> <p>Various humanitarian actors, witnesses and observers highlight the day-to-day of this humanitarian mission and the consequences of the war. Their stories and investigations are associated with a reflection on emergency relief and especially on the choices that undermine or improve its quality.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>You can download the EPUB version of this book or <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Civilians-Under-Fire-Humanitarian-Practices/dp/097471450X" target="_blank">buy it online</a>.</em></p> </div> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="flag.link_builder:build" arguments="0=node&amp;1=3540&amp;2=reading_list" token="blxwQxfJtE9CH5DJ6djMoGlr857xvqJgdnfinh-C7qs"></drupal-render-placeholder><span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-above">Civilians Under Fire</span> Tue, 01 Oct 2002 00:00:00 +0000 Jason-04 3540 at https://msf-crash.org